This is truly Jet Age! Where everything occurs less than speed of light (299792458 metres per second (approximately 300000 km/s, or 186000 mi/s). It is the time Nature wants to express its Axiom: ‘’Where there is diversity, there is similarity’’! Remember Nature has its Basic Chemical Elements at hand (Visible or Invisible).

If the ‘secret of life’ is to be found anywhere it is in these molecules (Roberts, 1986). What everyone is looking for is balancing of molecular dictate of our mental activities (human wants, specific and related demands). In fact, all living systems are subjected to the same physical and chemical laws (Source of Hybrid Era Between Spiritual and Scientific Inventions) as are non-living systems. Within the cells of any organism, the living substance, or protoplasm, is itself comprised of a multitude of non-living constituents: proteins, nuleic acids, fat (lipids), carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, waste metabolites, crystalline aggregates, pigments, and many others, all of which are composed of molecules and their constituent atoms.  The protoplasm is alive because of the highly complex organization of these non-living substances and the way they interact with one another.

Love and Deadly Affairs (Missing Link). Nerve impulses and Heat Units Expressions are scientific and spiritual evidence of all human activities. Human body is rather like a highly technical and sophisticated machine. It  operates as a single entity, but is made up of a number of systems that work inter dependently. Each system is associated with a specific, and sometimes related, function that is normally essential for the well-being of the individual. Our nerves are very sensitive to every heart beat and our Angel Records are Hyper Sensitive to our heart beat. Therefore when we make love with our married partner or deadly love with external partner has record in our brain and angel record.  Identification of these impulses will help us to solve many problems in our communities and business opportunities. Majority did not know their sexual weakness and this affect their working efficiency and wealth accumulation. This affected my spiritual and scientific developments until I identify my weak point then my career changed. Identify your weak point today and you will never remain the same again?

Homes and Home Training: Today world bank and many institutions are looking for solutions to Poor Educational Systems but failed to attached importance to Functions of Homes and Home Training. Homes remain basic functional and structural units of all communities. If we want solution to Poor Educational Systems then we need to take Homes and Home Training very important!     Call or Our Primary Assignments: Adequate Research Work and Teaching (God Predicted Primary Assignments). No Knowledge is a waste! The world is crying for your Hidden Talents and Experience? Let Us Work Together to Provide the Solutions? It may not be an easy task! We in Position to Help! Please let us play our own Roles?



I am an advocate to Zero Tolerance to office work because it kills talents and billion of jobs creation opportunities. ‘’Let your Practical Experience be your asset to job creation opportunities (Entrepreneurship Development or Disciplines Training).

Principle of Cell Concept proved how God built the Universe on Win-Win Entreneurship under the control of every cell originate from pre-existing cell.


The volume of a cell is fairly constant for a particular cell type and is independent of the size of the organism (Law of constant volume). For example, kidney or liver cells are about the same size in the bull, horse, and mouse. The difference in the total mass of the organ or organism depends on the number, not on the volume of the cells. Thus, the cells of an elephant are not necessarily larger than those of the other tiny animals or plants. The large size of the elephant is due to the larger number of cells present in its body. If a cell is to be efficient, the ratio of volume to surface should be within a limited range. An increase in cell volume is accompanied by a much smaller expansion in the surface area of the cell (infact, volume increase as cube of radius, while surface area increase as square of radius). In other words, a large cell has a proportionately smaller surface and higher volume: surface ratio than a smaller cell. Further, a large cell volume has to accommodate many organelles simultaneously limiting the exchange of information and materials through the surface. We must accept and conclude that quality educational system is expensive and consumed time a lot. It is only in monitored and regulated Win-Win Entrepreneurship we can compete successfully with nature challenges and increase in human wants. We must look into inefficiency of office work in order to make them work efficiently with current challenges and jobs creation opportunities. Majority of us are always in cyclic unemployment when we are still searching for our unique talents in order to save masses of natural challenges. The earlier we realised that we are talented to save billion of people, the more the universe will be easier for every one of us.

The list below are challenges and opportunities in networking business for you and I by investing our time and brain in providing solution to a particular one for billion of people. The more you make others happy, the more you will be happy and next generation. You will now agree with me that God created the Universe on Win-Win Entrepreneurship under the control of Transparency and Accountability monitored by Quality Educational System. Note; No Knowledge is A Waste. Your $1 equals $1billion if you know how to provide world solutions with your common sense or talent. Respect is reciprocal and school of taught for Unique Invention.

5.1.7-Logistics and insurance-Contract of carriage: FOB, CIF/CFR, FOT and FCA

The coffee trade uses four basic contract conditions: FOB, CIF (or CFR), FOT and FCA, of which the first two are most common.

FOB – free on board: The seller’s obligations are fulfilled when the goods have passed over the ship’s rail at the port of shipment. For contracts FOT (free on truck) and FOR (free on rail) this occurs when the goods have passed over the truck’s tailgate or the railcar’s loading gate.

Under present-day FOB contracts it is nearly always the buyer who arranges the contract of carriage and who is liable for all costs and risk from that point onwards. Nevertheless ECC clearly states that an FOB contract is in fact to be considered as an ill-defined cost and freight contract, with the freight being for account of the buyers. The exporter’s contractual responsibility ends only when the coffee crosses the ship’s rail. But ECC also states that the buyer is responsible for insuring the goods from the time the goods leave the ultimate warehouse or other place of storage at the port of shipment. This is important because it is increasingly difficult to establish the precise time a container leaves the stack on the quayside and is transferred across the ship’s rail. Under GCA contracts the risk of loss transfers upon crossing of the ship’s rail and exporters must insure accordingly. See 05.05 Insurance for more on this.

CIF – cost, insurance and freight (or CFR – cost and freight): Here the shipper arranges and pays the contract of carriage but otherwise the transfer of risk is as under FOB.

FCA – free carrier: Here the seller’s obligations are fulfilled when the goods, cleared for export, are handed to the carrier or the carrier’s official agent(s) at the named place or point of handing over. (Sometimes also called free in container or free in warehouse.) The buyer’s responsibility starts here and they are liable to pay all and any inland transportation costs as well as the cost of loading at the port of shipment.

The total freight cost takes all this into account. Not everyone is willing to purchase basis FCA though, especially if the goods are not handed over at the carrier’s own premises or at a recognized container filling station. Remember that inland and marine transports are covered by different international conventions and even though a shipping line may arrange for the inland transport it will not necessarily accept liability for events occurring before the goods reach the port of shipment or cross the ship’s rail.

Cost distribution between sellers (S) and buyers (B)

Loading at sellers’ premisesSSS
Inland transport (from the named place)SSB
Trade documentation at originSSS
Customs clearance at originSSS
Export chargesSSS
Loading terminal handling charges (THC)SSB
Ocean freightBSB
Unloading terminal handling charges (THC)BBB

In the United States a considerable amount of business is transacted either FOT or FCA because of the coffee imported from Mexico through the land border between the two countries (around 2 million bags a year). Seller and buyer may not always be clear on the difference between the two terms. Basically, in the case of FOT or FOR the risk of loss transfers to the buyer when the goods are placed on the truck or railcar, whilst in the case of FCA that risk transfers to the buyer the moment the goods are received by the carrier, whether for overland or maritime transport.

Customs Documentation charges or Cargo Declaration fees are a new type of charge, introduced by shipping lines to cover the cost of complying with maritime cargo security regulations now in force for both the United States and the European Union. Cargo that does not comply with these regulations may not be loaded and the lines have to ensure only correctly documented cargo is loaded. Whilst there is no denying that there is an administrative and IT cost to this, many exporters consider these charges to be linked to importation and therefore should be paid by the receiver. However, the general consensus on the receiving side sofar is that these charges are part of the cost of bringing cargo to FOB, i.e. they form part of the export charges and as such are to be paid by shippers.



Journey of thousand miles start with a Thought! Therefore you must develop great mind with best attitude in order to arrive at Great Destination full of Favour and Blessing.

Journey of Dr Cow start with Identification of God’s Purpose in My Life. I realised that nothing is a waste in a cow which pointed to all our activities are great if we follow it with good intension even when we make mistakes. Some great Scientists, Traditionalists, Spiritualists mistakes are what we celebrate today. The similitude was an example from Quran 2 Vs 67-71.

Q2 Vs67: And (remember) when Musa (Moses) said to his people ‘’Verily, Allah commands you that you slaughter a cow.’’ They said, ‘’ Do you make fun of us?’’ He said, ‘’ I take Allah’s Refuge from being among Al-Jahilun ( the ignorant or the fooloish).

Q2 Vs68 They said, ‘’ Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!’’ He said, ‘’ He says, ‘’ Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but (it is) between the two conditions, so do what you are commanded.’’

Q2 Vs69: They said, ‘’ Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us it colour’’. He said, He says, ‘ It is a yellow cow, bright in its colour, pleasing the beholders’’.

Q2 Vs70: ‘’They said, ‘’Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily, to us all cows are alike. And surely, if Allah wills, we will be guided.’’

Q2 Vs71: He [Musa (Moses)] said, ‘’ He says, ‘It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no other colour except bright yellow.’’ They said, ‘’ Now you have brought the truth.’’ So they slaughtered it though they were near top not doing it. 


  • In the time of problem beyond human comprehension there is need to consult The Supreme Being (God).
  • There are special people among us who can act between God and People. We need to identify the special one among us whether as Scientists, Traditionalists, and Spiritualists.
  • Questions and Answers bring Solutions, Opportunities, and Connections to many things.
  • God use the cow to answer the poor they got the cow from. Likewise God can send people to you to bless you and answer your forefather prayers on you. But you must also purify your mind and have great attitude to receive these blessings. This is one of the sources of my vision of Dr Cow.
  • Colour has great impact in Science, Spiritual, and Traditional Rituals and Blessing. Take colour an important factor in your life!


And it came about that, as soon as Solomon had finished building the house of Jehovah and the house of the King and every desirable thing of Solomon that he took delight in making. 2 then Jehovah appeared to Solomon the second time, the same as he had appeared to him in Gibeon. 3 and Jehovah went on to say to him: I have heard your prayer and request for favour before me. I have sanctified this house that you have built by putting my name there to time indefinite; and my eyes and my heart will certainly prove to be there always. 4 And you, if you will walk before me, just as David your father walked, with integrity of heart and uprightness by doing according to all that I have commanded you, and you will keep my regulations and my judicial decisions. 5 I also shall indeed establish the throne of your Kingdom over Israel to time indefinite, just as I promised David your father, saying, Not a man of yours will be cut off from sitting upon the throne of Israel.


  • Solomon and David serve God and built houses for God
  • God can appear to us in many ways ( dreams, lights, sounds, and many more)
  • God answers prayer and bless His people abundantly
  • Our bodies and houses are Sanctuaries of God
  • We must serve people with integrity of heart and uprightness
  • God put His disciples on the thrones


Jehovah now said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt: 2 ‘’ This month will be the start of the months for you. It will be the first of the months of the year for you. 3 Speak to the entire assembly of Israel saying, On the tenth day of this month they are to take for themselves each one a sheep for the ancestral house.





  1. What are microbodies?
  2. Describe the symbiotic origin theory of the peroxisomes
  3. Define the terms Peroxisome and Glyoxysome
  4. What would be the most likely role of peroxisome in cells lacking mitochondria?
  5. What is the function of the glyoxylate cycle?
  6. What is Photorespiration?
  7. How do Peroxisomes contribute?
  8. Write an account of structure, synthesis, function, and histochemical localization of the catalase enzyme in eukaryotic cells
  9. Describe the mode of biogenesis and various functions of peroxisomes in animal cells

We tend to think of ecosystems in terms of the plants and animals that we might see on a visit to a ‘’natural’’ area in a state park or wilderness location. However, anywhere organisms exist is, in a strict sense, an ecosystem. Many of the most important organisms and ecological processes in all ecosystems are invisible to us because the organisms are small or because they and the processes occur in the soil or in the body cells. This short note on microbodies will help you to;

  • Start attaching more importance to every living and non-living molecules
  • Connect Solar Systems to molecular structures, functions, and compositions. Ability to identify active molecular structures and supportive structures
  • Simplify cells complexities and diversities
  • Appreciate the link between living things and non-living things
  • Help you to solve your body systems challenges with chemical and physical terms and conditions

Make sure you are reading this book by eliminating any element of distraction. The writer is ready to give you best discoveries in science and technology world.

What are Cells?

Cells are basic structural and functional units of a particular existence. The universe of the cell is complex and diverse. Cells are tiny but complex bodies. It is difficult to see their structures; more difficult to find understand their molecular composition and still difficult to find out the function of their various components. What one can learn about cells, depends on the tools at one’s disposal. Our understanding of cell will prepare our minds to complexity of microbodies because they are smaller than cells. This means that we must read this book with all our minds concentrations and scientific imagination of sizes of microbodies.


The cells of Protozoa, Fungi, Plants, Liver, and Kidney of vertebrates contain membrane-bound, spherical bodies of 0.2 to 1.5 um diameter in close association of endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, or chloroplast, or both. These organelles have a central granular or crystalloid core containing some enzymes or activators or active molecules and are called Microbodies. Microbodies use molecular oxygen like mitochondria, but instead of having cytochromes and capacity of ATP synthesis like them, they contain flavin-linked oxides and catalases for the hydrogen peroxide metabolism and also enzymes for fatty acid metabolism ( this will help you to start to predict your bodies challenges with chemical or physical terms and conditions).

Major Differences between Peroxisomes versus Mitochondria and Chloroplasts

  1. Peroxisomes organelles are surrounded only by a single membrane
  2. They do not contain DNA (genome) or ribosomes
  3. They resemble endoplasmic reticulum in being self-replicating membrane bound organelles.  


Since the mid-1950s electron microscopists have observed small structures or bodies in cells that on morphological grounds have been aptly termed microbodies. Duve and P. Baudhuin (1966) coined the term peroxisome for the microbodies of mammalian systems and studied their structures and functions. Leaf proxisomes were first isolated from spinach leaf homogenate ( i.e, from mesophyll cel) by Tolbert’s group in Michigen in 1968. Glyoxysomes, were discovered in 1969 by Beevers in the endoplasm cells of germinating castor bean (Ricinus)  


Microbodies are spherical or oblate in form. They are bounded by a single membrane and have an interior or matrix which is amorphous or granular. Microbodies are most easily distinguished from other cell organelles by their content of catalase enzyme. Catalase can be visualized with the electron microscope when cell treated with the stain DAB (i.e., 3, 3’-diaminobenzidine). The product is electron opaque and appears as dark regions in the cell where catalase is present. By applying this technique microbodies have been observed by electron microscopy and subsequently isolated from various mammalian tissues such as liver, kidney, intestine and brain.

Isolation Techniques of Microbodies from Animals and Plant Tissues

  1. Tissues are ground very carefully to save microbodies from disruption
  2. The homogenate is treated with differential configuration to obtain a fraction of the cell homogenate which is rich in microbodies
  3. The enriched fraction is subjected to isopycnic ultra-centrifugation on discontinuous or continuous sucrose density gradient

Two Main Microbodies

  1. Peroxisomes
  2. Glyoxysomes

Differences Between Peroxisome and Glyoxysome

It is found in animal cells and in the leaves of higher plantsOnly occur in plant cells most in germinating seeds which store fats as a reserve food material
They contain catalases and oxidases ( e.g., D-amino oxidase and urate oxidase)     2 They contain enzymes of glyoxylate cycle besides the catalases and oxidases
 It is intimately associated with lipid bodies, the spherosomes
 It contains enzymes for fatty acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis (i.e., formation of glucose from various non-carbohydrate precursors as succinate in this case  

    Other Terms Used to Describe Microbodies

  1. Cytosomes
  2. Phragmosomes
  3. Crystal-containing bodies


Peroxisomes occur in many animal cells and in a wide range of plants. They are present in all photosynthetic cells of higher plants in etiolated leaf tissue, in coleoptiles and hypocotyls, in tobacco stem and callus, in ripening pear fruits and also in Euglenophyta, Protozoa, brown algae, fungi, liverworts, mosses and ferns.


Peroxisomes are variable in size and shape, but usually appear circular in cross section having diameter between 0.2 and 1.5 um (0.15 to 0.25 um diameter in most mammalian tissues; 0.5 um in rat liver cells). They have a single limiting unit membrane of lipid and protein molecules, which encloses their granular matrix. In some cases (e.g., in the festuciod grasses) the matrix contains numerous threads or fibrils, while in the others they are observed to contain either an amorphous nucleoid or a dense inner core which in many species shows a regular crystalloid structure ( e.g., tobacco leaf cell, Newcomb and Frederick, 1971). Little is known about the function of the core, except that it is the site of the enzyme urate oxidase in rat liver peroxisomes and much of the catalase in some plants (see Hall etal., 1974).

Functions of Peroxisomes

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide Metabolism Function: They usually contain one or more enzymes (i.e., D-amino acid oxidase and urate oxidase) that use



The Secret of Nature is Evaluation of its Efficiency! When God created the Whole Universe in Seven Days. He has enterprised the universe with calculation of its efficiencies from Traditional, Spiritual, and Scientific Reference Books. Therefore, no knowledge is a waste in Business Concept (SEO). We must give Great Salutations to those Great Leaders who sacrificed their Lives and Time to produce Our Current Generation. Where is the link between one generation to another?


Energy is ability to do work. We can not start distributing money to people. It will create great challenges to the community but if we start distributing work with adequate money with individual skill. We are going to create Win-Win Entrepreneurship Community. We can easily manage and monitor our communities to identify lazy minds among us.

All these are possible if we are ready to share our findings in a secured community. Secured community can only be achieved with Quality Educational Systems. Let everyone dare to discover the secrets in his field of study or believes and sell the idea to the secured to secured community.

I want to give thanks to Social Media Fans, Directors, and Influential Business Leaders for their trust in my Educational Business Plans and Ideas. I was arrested by the votes I received from you all. Thank You All for the Support!

I still need your support to track all these opportunities because I was focusing on Efficiency and Accuracy of my findings. This has been my weak and strong point. I need your help?




  1. What is the viability and purity requirement for certified seed?
  2.  Where can foundation seed be multiplied?
  3. What is foundation seed?
  4. What criteria should you use for ear selection?
  5. Why should you select ears carefully before shelling?
  6. In the forest of West and Central Africa, why is seed production in the second season not as problematic as in the first season
  7. What are the effects of late harvest?
  8. How can you avoid detasseling
  9. At what time should you detassel female rows
  10. At what time should you weed
  11. Why should seed multiplication field be weed free?
  12. At what time should you plant maize
  13. How can you ‘isolate’ seed field
  14. What region in West Africa is most suitable for maize?
  15. What are the ecological requirements for a hybrid seed industry?
  16. What is Tx gaining popularity in developing countries?
  17. What is the effects of hybridization between two inbreeding lines?
  18. How can high quality seed of hybrid maize be best produced
  19. How is ‘seed different from grain
  20. What was the first commercially available F1 seed?


After reading this handout, you should be able to:

  • Describe the principles of hybrid seed production, manage the field operations of hybrid seed production
  • Control Pests
  • Manage Detasseling
  • Harvest Process and Store Hybrid Seed
  • Multiply Foundation Seed

Study Materials:

Maize plants at different stages of inbreeding and hybridization, Seed Field, Equipment, materials for land preparation, seed field at tasseling, silking, and harvest stage, Drying and Storage Materials, Field of Foundation Seed.


Hybrid maize seed was the first commercially available F1 seed. Inbreed lines serve as parents for commercial production of single-cross hybrid seed. Cooperation between seed companies, research institutes, and government institutions is essential to the successful development of productive hybrids. Commercial hybrid seed production requires proper ecological location, agronomic practices, pest and disease control.

Additional elements necessary for a successful hybrid seed industry include seed handling, treatment, and packaging equipment and materials, appropriate seed storage environment, and an efficient seed distribution and marketing infrastructure. Seed production in the savannah is often better than in the forest area of Sub-Saharan Africa. The role of governmental seed certification agencies is to test seed viability and purity and to issue certificates to seed companies for seed marketing.

The discovery of hybrid maize has revolutionized maize production. Hybrid maize production increased dramatically in the USA between 1940 and 1950 because of the performance exhibited by hybrids in the severe drought of 1934 and 1936.

Similar expansion of hybrid maize production occurred in  Europe beginning from 1984, and in East  and Southern Africa from the end of the early 1960s and early ‘70s. Among agricultural and horticultural crops, hybrid maize  was the first commercially available F1 seed. In West and Central Africa, however, agriculture has not fully exploited the benefits of hybrid maize.

Seed is different from grain. While grain is used as human food, animal food, or in numerous commercial processes, seed is used as planting material. Seed must therefore be specially handled and maintained under conditions that protect the living embryo and maintain the capacity of the seed to germinate when planted. Seed contains the genetic potential of the crop including superior plant characteristics. Seed must be handled with care to maintain genetic purity from generation to generation.

Seed production, especially hybrid seed production, requires specific guidelines and standards that vary according to the class of seed. Seed classes depend on the stage in the seed multiplication chain. Seed Certification Programs in the United States recognize four classes of seeds in agronomic crops, such as cotton, alfalfa, soybeans, and cereal grains:

  1. Breeder Seed: This is produced only in small amounts and is under the control of the plant breeder. It is planted to produce foundation seed. Breeder seed is labelled with a white tag.
  2. Foundation Seed: This is multiplied from breeder seed; it is available only in limited amounts and is planted to produce registered seed. It is controlled by public or private foundation seed stock organizations. Foundation seed is also labelled with a white tag.
  3. Registered Seed: This is the seed source for growers of certified seed and is under the control of the registered seed producers. It is the progeny of either breeder or foundation seed. It is labelled with a purple tag.
  4. Certified Seed: This seed is available in large quantities and is sold to farmers for general crop production. It is labelled with a blue tag. It is of known genetic identity and purity.

Importance of All Activities Taken in Seed Production

Contract growers obtain foundation seed from which they produce certified seed. Farmers grow certified seeds for grains production. To ensure farmers’ interest in hybrid maize, seed must be of high quality with high yield potential and resistance to major pests and diseases.

Experiences of National Programs, International Agricultural Research Centres, Private Seed Companies and farmers show that high-quality seed hybrid maize can best be produced by private seed companies regulated by governmental seed certification agencies. Collaboration between private companies and governmental agencies is the most efficient way to achieve the benefits of hybrid maize.

All agencies and individuals involved in hybrid seed production must follow specific rules and regulations. For example, field and postharvest inspections are necessary to ensure quality standards. High-quality certified seed is not possible if foundation seed was not also properly produced. A Certification Label, issued by impartial regulatory agency (usually governmental), should be stitched to every seed bag and serves as farmer’s guarantee that he or she is purchasing quality seed and not just grain.

Agronomy Control Measure

  • Visit Farmers and ask about their experience with maize seed to get feedback on seed improvement and adaptability
  • Visit seed companies and contract seed growers and study their production procedures
  • In the field discuss isolation of seed fields
  • Practice land preparation, planting, pest management, weed control, detasseling, emergency procedures, field inspection, harvesting seed, processing and storing

All these precautionary measures or experience will prepare you for the rigorous work of producing Pure and Great Viable Seeds. This is not an easy task because all steps are crucial to the success of your seed production. Any violation render your seeds production not accepted by International Standard


The plants we cultivate for our survival and pleasure all originated from wild plants. However, most of our domesticated plants appear very different from their wild relatives. These differences have come about mainly through the Recombination of Gene and the Redistribution of heritable traits through the generations separating the wild types from the domestic plants. Manipulating natural genetic processes has been the basis for crop improvement since the time of the first plant scientists. Understanding basic genetic principle of the traditional method of plant breeding and plant propagation and the most recent tool for crop improvement.


Some plants consist entirely of living cells, whereas others, such as woody perennials, are made up of both living and dead cells. The living cell consists of a cell wall containing a fluid, the cytoplasm, in which the nucleus is suspended, along with many other structures. The nucleus contains the chromosomes, which carry most of the genetic information and transmit that information from one generation of cells of the entire plant species. Chromosome always carrying distinct numbers and shapes and control many activities of the cells. Scientist bank on this distinct properties of chromosome to predict and manipulate many plants and animals characteristics. This number is usually the 2n, or diploid, chromosome number ( although higher number-tetraploid or octaploid for example – also occur). In the sex cells – the egg and sperm – the number is reduced by half and is termed the haploid, or 1n, chromosome number.

Although usually constant for a given species, the number, size, and appearance of chromosomes vary considerably between different plant species. The chromosomes can be counted by microscopic examination of the nucleus at a stage just before cell division. The chromosome numbers are known for most plant species. For example; The diploid chromosome number for alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) is 32, for barley (Hordeum vulgare), 14; for corn( Zea mays), 20, and for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), 18.

Chromosomes change in appearance during cellular development and division, but basically each is a long, threadlike structure consisting of deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) plus associated ribonucleic acid (RNA) and various proteins. DNA can replicate itself and it can transmit information to other parts of the cell. DNA is a polymer- a very large molecule made up of many repeating units, but the repeating unit called nucleotides can vary. DNA, the active genetic material is a very large molecule composed of two spiral strands. The ‘’backbone’’ of these strands is composed of sugar residues (S) linked by phosphates (P) on each side. A sugar residue on one strand is connected with a sugar residue on the other by two bases that are linked to each other by hydrogen bonds. These bases are Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), Adenine (A), and Thymine (T). The sugar residues in each strand are held tightly together by phosphate radicals, but the two spiral strands are bound together more loosely by the hydrogen bonds.

One of the characteristics of DNA that makes it possible for the chromosomes to transmit genetic information from one cell generation to the next is its ability to replicate itself. This ability arises from the double-strand structure of the molecule and the properties of the four bases.    



Genius Focus Principle; ‘’is 1percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.

Note: Everything negative, pressure, challenges is all an opportunity for you to rise.

Success Code = Focus + Determination + Seriousness

NICHE is your defined location or area of discipline.

Case Study or Story;

A case of 74-year-old surfer twins Bob and Bill Meistrell, throw in refrigeration. Tired of freezing in the Pacific while diving and surfing, they invented the neoprene wet suit in 1953. They use insulation from the back of a fridge. Their Company, Body Glove revolutionized the sports.

Success came because they knew their NICHE and saw a need.

Their Steps to the Discovery:


Meistrells started selling custom-made wet suits at local shop, Dive ‘n’ Surt.  ‘’Everyone laughed at us,’ Bob says. ‘’But we were constantly promoting just by jumping around in our wet suits.’’ Their readiness kick starts their company.


Their shop was humble, but the twins were savvy enough to hire a marketing man for the wet suits, which they’d named Thermocline. They asked themselves what was special about the suits.  Bill said, ‘’ they fit like a glove.’’


‘’My sons and grandsons all surf,’’ says Bob. They sponsor surfing contests. They were busy filling a market for wet suits that hold toys: neoprene cell-phone sleeves, CD/DVD wallets, and PDA and camera cases.

Success is not a joke but we must work very hard to be successful in all our plans. 



It is no more New NEWS that things are not going easy in every sector! Even the hard working individual is complaining bitterly on management of resources. Where is the problem coming from? From Governments, Workers, Business Leaders, Our Institutions, Students, Environmental Factors, Uncertainty? Let us start our scientific diagnosis of Our Hybrid Entrepreneurial Post Covid-19 Period.

Hybrid means breeding of two pure lines to produce genetically modified individuals. What are the two pure lines Covid-19 breeded for us? They are Industrial Age + Information Age = Efficiency Calculation Age or Measurable Sacrifice Age. Therefore nothing is a waste in Post Covid-19 Period when it can be measured and quantified for human benefits.

Sacrifices are Antidotes to Post Covid-19 Hardships

Pains create challenges and opportunities. No sector today is not faced with one or more challenges but our sacrifice to understand the sources and ways out of the challenges are antidotes in Post Covid-19 Period. We must try to evaluate efficiency of individual contributions and respect everyone opinion. We must make protection of individual discovery our priority. We are mirror image to one another (what affect me must also affect you). This is was the spirit of people of Industrial Age giving birth to Information Age. When this spirit is dead in you try to search for it and make it your duty to be your brother’s keeper? Together we can bring back World Peace! Play Your Own Role and I will Play My Own Role!

7 Steps to CDP Heaven (A Maturity Model for Data Management)





  1. Business 2 Business
  2. Business 2 Customers


Creation of a Unified Customer Profile


Tracking Actionable Customer Insights (Customer Centric Marketing Programs)

  1. Real-time Analytics
  2. Decision-making
  3. Contact
  4. Delivery

Note steps 1&2 accurate data is important to success of the rest processes.


More proactive customer outreach

  1. Utilizing action triggers customer experience
  2. Personalization of customer experience


Digital Media Optimization

  1. Paid Media Optimization
  2. Customization for targeted audiences


Real-time decisioning and personalization through customers owned media

  1. Testing
  2. Optimization for e-commerce and websites


Cross-channel Orchestration with online and offline integration and personalized triggers


  1. Implementation of advance analytics
  2. Artificial Intelligence for predictive models of future customer behaviour

These steps will help you to turn Data to Dollars! Write and Talk to Sell Campaigns.

Nutrition and Your Health

Nutrition and Your Health

IRON OUT CANCER: One of the reason to watch the amount of iron in your diet: Too much of the mineral could increase your risk of Colon Cancer.


Research shows that getting too much iron in your diet can increase your risk of developing Colon Cancer by as much as 40 percent.

Food Rich in Iron Include:

  • Liver
  • Seafood
  • Enriched Flour

What to Eat to Fight Fatigue: Cereal is fine for a quick and easy breakfast, but if you plan to attend a late-morning meeting, you should eat a high-protein breakfast for example eggs + yam, turkey bacon.

Researcher analyzed blood sample from a group of people who’d eaten either a high-protein or a high-carbohydrate breakfast. Both group started out with similar levels of the sleep inducing compound tryptophan in their bodies- but 2 hours after eating, the carb eaters had tryptophan levels four times higher than those of the people who’d eaten protein. The higher your tryptophan level, the more likely you are to feel tired and sluggish.

Simple Aristotle Medical Advice: Let Your Food be Your Medicine and Your Medicine be Your Food ! Knowledge Utilizing and Producing Institutions can help us to train our Great Scholars to know more on importance of food and how to create income from their understanding of the food.